The long-reigning Queen Hatshepsut was the longest-serving female Pharaoh throughout ancient Egypt’s history. How did she do it all?
The 18th Dynasty in Egypt saw the return to power of Egyptian native rulers and the height of Egyptian wealth. Queen Hatshepsut was one of those rulers. She ruled from 1473-1458 B.C. Her half-brother Thutmose II died young, and her infant stepson became the Pharaoh.
Hatshepsut, who was only in her twenties at the time, assumed active rule as his regent. After a few years, Hatshepsut was able to expel her stepson. She then took over as the official Pharaoh in Egypt. This led to a long, prosperous reign.
Facts About Hatshepsut
1. An Attempt to Remove Hatshepsut From History Fails
Historians have had difficulty tracing Hatshepsut’s life and reign. The lack of evidence is a major reason for the uncertainty. Hatshepsut’s name was deliberately erased from Egyptian monuments as well as sculptures. This was presumably her stepson Thutmose II.
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Although his actions were initially viewed as bitter revenge for his stepmother’s usurpation, a closer examination reveals other practical motives. Hatshepsut didn’t persecute her stepson. In fact, he held key posts in her government and led her army. They have not been found to be in any kind of hatred. The timing of the erasure is even more bizarre. The erasure was performed at the end of Thutmose’s life, not the beginning.
According to Egyptian tradition, Hatshepsut’s mentions were not destroyed within her tomb’s inner chambers, which would have made it difficult for her to enter the afterlife. It is likely that Hatshepsut would have targeted the inscriptions that indicated that he did not hold any grudge against his stepmother. Thutmose III’s son Amenhotep II apparently destroyed the monument as a political maneuver. Some historians suggest that Hatshepsut was actually removed from history by Amenhotep and not his father.
2. She Led Her Own Military Campaign
At only twenty-two years old, Hatshepsut took control and followed the lead of her 18th Dynasty predecessors. She strengthened her power by launching a successful military campaign against the kingdom of Kush in the south. Images and inscriptions from Senenmut’s tomb, Tiy at Seheil and the stela de Djehuty all document the campaign. The latter two are very explicit that Hatshepsut led the campaign.
3. Hatshepsut Changed Her Image to Look More Masculine
Her early depictions are more feminine and likely more accurate representations of her appearance. The carvings and sculptures start to show a more masculine side about halfway through her reign. She is often shown wearing the traditional Egyptian clothing of male rulers. In the latter part of her life she was fully depicted as a male figure, wearing male clothing and even sporting the traditional beard of Egyptian Pharaohs.
It was not surprising that this caused confusion for archeologists who were trying to find the identities and timelines of the Egyptian Pharaohs. Even worse, Hatshepsut, who was using Hatshepsu as her masculine name, had already dropped all titles that were held exclusively by women of ancient Egypt by the end of her reign.
4. She launched a massive expedition to the Land of Punt in the Ninth year of her reign
Punt is also known as “the Divine Land” and is thought to be near modern Somalia. The expedition was a huge success and the Egyptians returned home with a wealth of exotic and rare items. The expedition’s most important goal was to bring living myrrh plants back to Egypt. Myrrh and incense were expensive in ancient times because they could only be grown in limited places.
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However, they were required in many cultures, including Egypt’s religious and funerary ceremonies. The wall paintings of Hatshepsut’s funerary temple depict the expedition members returning with these trees. They were not well-suited for Egypt’s climate, and none of them survived. However, trade with Punt seems to have continued all her reign.
5. One theory suggests that Hatshepsut might be the Biblical Queen of Sheba.
A new theory claims that Punt was not in the south of Egypt but rather in the region of Judea. Hatshepsut, who is the legendary Biblical Queen from Sheba, met with Solomon. In his 1952 book Ages of Chaos, Immanuel Velikovsky argued that the 18th Dynasty was incorrectly dated. It actually occurred almost five centuries later than originally thought. This change in timeline solves many long-standing differences between Israel and Egypt’s histories.
It also makes Hatshepsut and Solomon’s contemporaries. Velikovsky pointed out a passage from the ancient Jewish historian Josephus in the 1st Century A.D., who stated explicitly that the Queen of Sheba was “The woman who, at the time, ruled over Egypt as queen.” Velikovsky believed the mysterious “land” of Punt actually meant Jerusalem and that all the exotic items that were brought back to Egypt could have been located in the Jordan River Valley at that time. Although the theory is not widely accepted and reliefs showing the journey appear to be more consistent with a south African destination, it’s still interesting to think about.
6. She was one of the most prolific builders in Egyptian history.
Heavy destruction of Egyptian art and monuments was caused by the previous Dynasty that occupied Hyksos rulers. Hatshepsut repaired the damage and rebuilt even more. Her work included the reconstruction of the Precinct of Mu at Karnak and the construction of the Red Chapel at Karnak. She also constructed the Temple of Pakhet in Beni Hasan. Many statues from her reign were ordered, and almost all museums that feature Egyptian artefacts today have some.
The New York Metropolitan Museum of Art even has an entire Hatshepsut area dedicated to statues dating from her reign. Hatshepsut also ordered many obelisks. One of these remains the highest surviving ancient obelisk.
7. Her greatest architectural creation is her Mortuary Temple Complex in Deir El Bahri.
Senenmut was her chief Steward and oversaw the construction of the stunning Mortuary temple of Hatshepsut. It took approximately fifteen years. While the Temple of Mentuhotep II was a good example, Queen Hatshepsut has a quite different temple in many stylistic aspects. This is a shift in Egyptian temple design from the large, geometric Old Kingdom style to one that can be used more actively by worshippers. It is three stories high and connected by ramps or terraces. It was home to shrines, chapels and the sanctuary of Amunre. They were all interwoven with elaborate gardens, exotic plants, reflecting pools, and carved reliefs.
Two important sequences are painted in low relief on the mortuary temple. One depicts the famous expedition to Punt, while the other shows Queen Hatshepsut’s life. Hatshepsut carefully planned these sequences to establish her right of rule. Amun, disguised as Thutmose II, asks for blessings from the other gods to help her become the powerful and great Queen she is. He then visits Hatshepsut and gives birth to Hatshepsut. Another scene shows Hatshepsut crowning her King.
This conveys the idea that Hatshepsut was his intention to have his daughter rule. Hatshepsut was active in both her father’s government and that of her brother, and she came to power with extensive administration experience. It is true, but it serves as propaganda for Hatshepsut to claim her sole right of rule.
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8. It is possible that she had an affair with her Steward
Today, historians whisper that Queen Hatshepsut was rumored to have a lover. This would be none other than Senenmut, her chief Steward. It was a remarkable honor for archaeologists to find that Hatshepsut allowed Senenmut his name and image to be inscribed into her mortuary temple. Hatshepsut and Senenmut were also buried in matching sarcophagi.
Another clue is a piece of interesting graffiti. An old, unfinished tomb was found near Hatshepsut’s temple that construction workers used to build a house. One of the walls depicts a man and his Pharaoh falling in love. The depiction of the Pharaoh looks rather androgynous, and it is assumed that Senemut is the man. This is not evidence of a relationship, but it does suggest that temple workers harbored the same suspicions as historians today.
9. It’s been a long and difficult task to find Hatshepsut’s body.
The king’s mortuary temple was usually located adjacent to their tomb and pyramid in the Old and Middle Kingdoms. Hatshepsut was not found when archeologists dug into Hatshepsut’s mortuary temple. The Valley of Kings was discovered to contain items and a canopic container that were associated with Hatshepsut. It is believed to be Thutmose I’s original tomb.
Historians believe Queen Hatshepsut added an extension to her father’s tomb. Her body was later moved. Another tomb, V60, contained two female mummies. The coffin had the title “royal nursing” and was thought to be Hatshepsut’s. It was believed that the second body belonged to Hatshepsut. C.T. scans of the mummy as well as the canopic container found in KV20 confirmed that.
The CT scans of other royal family members showed that the female mummy had certain physiological features. The scans revealed that the mummy had one remaining broken root in her jaw and was missing a single molar. The scans revealed an embalmed liver, spleen, intestines and one human molar missing one root. Dr. Galal El-Beheri was an orthodontist who worked on the project. However, not all scholars agree.
There are still questions about the match’s precision and the missing third molar root. Although no absolute identification has been made, ample circumstantial evidence suggests that Queen Hatshepsut mummy that lost its tooth.
10. Queen Hatshepsut may have accidentally caused her own death
According to Hatshepsut’s mummy, the Queen was just over five feet tall and had been overweight at the time of her death. Red-painted fingers and fingernails complemented her long, golden hair. Modern technology can now reveal more information about the great Queen. In her later years she was diagnosed with arthritis and diabetes. She also suffered from bone cancer. It has been established that the cause of the cancer was even known. Queen Hatshepsut seems to have suffered from a chronic, genetic skin condition. This was either to hide it or to try to improve it. The lotion was carcinogenic and slowly penetrated the bone, resulting in her death.
The turnip (Brassica Rapa) is a root vegetable with a unique flavor. Their flavor can be compared to potatoes, carrots, kale and broccoli (cruciferous vegetables). Cooking can also make the flavor milder.
Turnips are a versatile vegetable that can be cooked or eaten raw. These versatile veggies are a smart addition to your diet because they provide fiber and a healthy dose of vitamin C.
Turnip Nutrition Facts
The USDA provides the following nutrition information for turnip cubes boiled with no salt and drained.
- Calories: 34
- Fat: 0.1g
- Sodium: 25mg
- Carbohydrates: 7.8g
- Fiber: 3.1g
- Sugars: 4.6g
- Protein: 1.1g
One cup of boiled turnips has 34 calories. Most of the carbohydrate is in its one-cup portion. A single serving of boiled turnips will provide you with nearly 8 grams carbohydrates and just 3 grams fiber. A small amount of starch and natural sugar will also be consumed.
Turnips have a glycemic Index of 62. Turnips are estimated to have a glycemic load 2 2.
Turnips have a very low amount of fat, containing only 0.1g per cup.
Each turnip serving contains just over 1 gram protein.
Vitamins and Minerals
Turnips provide 18mg of vitamin C (or about 20% of the daily recommended intake). Other nutrients such as potassium, manganese and calcium are also available in small amounts.
Turnips can be added to your diet for health benefits such as prevention of disease and weight management.
Improved Heart Health
According to many studies, fiber found in turnips could improve your heart health.
The American Heart Association suggests planning more fibre-rich meals like whole grains, fresh or frozen fruits and veggies.
Turnips are low in calories and contain only 34 calories per cup. This makes them a great addition to any diet, especially if you’re trying to lose weight or manage your weight. Turnips contain 3.1g of fiber, which helps you reach the daily recommended intake of 28 grams.
Fiber is the indigestible portion of carbohydrates. Fiber is what makes you feel fuller for longer periods of time after eating. The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics recommends eating low-calorie foods high in fiber to help with weight management. Fiber slows down the rate at which food moves from the stomach into the rest of your digestive system.
Lower risk of getting sick
Researchers identified certain fruits and vegetables as powerhouse fruit or vegetables in a study. According to the researchers, these foods are associated with lower chronic disease risk. These foods have higher levels of bioavailable nutrients, including vitamin C. The list also included turnips and turnip leaves (the top part of the turnip), although the greens were ranked higher than those of the bulb.7
Turnips and other cruciferous vegetables are rich in glucosinolates. These phytonutrients are thought to help protect our bodies against certain types of cancers. Glucosinates have anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties. Research in humans suggests that cruciferous vegetables are good for cancer prevention, particularly breast cancer. 8
Vitamin C is found in turnips, which is a great source. It is essential for the production of collagen, the main protein of your skin. Vitamin C can also help protect your skin from sun-induced photodamage and age-related skin loss.
A 2017 issue of Nutrients published a review that found healthy skin was positively associated with increased vegetable and fruit intake. While they can’t identify the active ingredient in the fruits and vegetables that is responsible for the observed benefits, they suggest that vitamin C availability could be a factor.
Vitamin C found in turnips can also provide benefits for other cells of the body. Vitamin C is an antioxidant. Antioxidants can prevent oxidative stress from being caused by free radicals in the environment (such as smoking) or by free radicals created by our bodies. Experts recommend that antioxidants be consumed in foods like fruits and vegetables rather than being given an antioxidant supplement.
Although there are reports of allergic reactions to turnips and turnip greens in the literature, it is not common.
There have been no interactions between turnips, any medication, and turnips.
Turnip greens contain high levels of vitamin K. However, it is recommended that those on warfarin consult their healthcare provider before including them in their diet. These people should consume a steady amount of vitamin K each day.
Different varieties of turnips come in different sizes and colors. Turnips may be purple, red or even gold. You might find turnips the same size as a radish, or larger than a large beet.
Purple-top turnip is the most popular, and is usually found in the produce section at the grocery store. They are medium-sized and have a mild flavor that becomes sweeter when cooked.
When it’s at its best
The turnip season is from fall to spring.
Look for turnips with a firm texture and bright green color. It’s fine if there are no greens attached. Sometimes, turnip greens can be removed and sold individually.
Food Safety and Storage
USDA data shows that turnips can be kept for up to two weeks if stored in the fridge. Rinse the vegetables well and place them in plastic bags in a crisper section.
Frosted turnips can be kept fresh for 8-10 months if they are stored in airtight sealed containers and kept in the freezer.
How to Prepare
Turnips can be prepared in almost the same way as potatoes. Turnips can be roasted, boiled, steamed or sauteed in the stovetop, oven, microwave, and even grilled. Even low-carb turnip French fries can be made.
You can also eat raw turnips, especially the baby ones, grated or mashed. Or you can cook them with meat like in a pot roast. Turnips are much more dense than potatoes, so they cook quicker.
Garlic, ginger, mustard and apples are all good options for turnips. Try this low-carb root vegetable to see if you can substitute potatoes for turnips.
If you find this cruciferous vegetable to be bitter, you may have a genetic variant that allows you to taste a certain chemical (phenylthiocarbamide) which tastes bitter.13
Green peas are a great addition to any diet. They are high in dietary fiber, starch, protein, vitamins, and beneficial phytochemicals.
“Green peas are a great source of protein for vegetarians or vegans. Food manufacturers now use pea protein to make a variety of plant-based products such as non-dairy drinks, meatless hamburgers, and pea powder,” states Vandana Gujadhur RD. She also said that green peas, like any other legumes, are low in essential fatty acid methionine. You can compensate by adding a variety of grains to your diet.
This article will discuss green peas’s health benefits and potential side effects. Have a look.
What are green peas?
The seed of the green pea, or garden pea (Pisum Sativum), is the one that grows in hard pods. It is a type of legume that originates from Southeast Asia. It is a vital food legume and ranks fourth in the world for legume production ( 1).
Many cuisines use green peas. You can eat them raw, boiled or steamed. Or you can stir-fry their pods. These legume seeds are mildly sweet due to their starch content.
Peas, like most legumes, are healthy and nutritious. Find out more about the nutritional value of green peas.
Green Peas Nutrition Facts
- 100g of peas has 79 calories and 13g of carbohydrate. There are approximately 4g of dietary fiber and 4.5g of protein in a serving.
- Peas are a great source of vitamin A (765IU), vitamin C (40.5 mg), vitamin E (0.133) and vitamin K (24.8ug ( 2).
- They are high in minerals like selenium (1.24 mg) and zinc (1.8 ug), as well as phytonutrients like sscarotene (449 Ug) and lutein zeaxanthin (2477 Ug) ( 2).
- Peas’ phytonutrients include flavanols such as epicatechin and catechin, phenolic acid (caffeic and ferulic), and saponins ( 2).
We will discuss green beans’ health benefits in the next section.
Green Peas Have Many Health Benefits
- May help manage blood sugar and diabetes
Vandana Gujadhur RD, says that green peas are low on the Glycemic index scale because they contain dietary fiber which slows down the metabolism of carbohydrates in your blood.
Low-GI foods can be beneficial in preventing and managing type 2 diabetes ( 3).
Pea extracts from raw peas were shown to inhibit the activity of an enzyme involved in carbohydrate metabolism in mice. This could explain the hypoglycemic effects of pea extracts on mice ( 4). To understand the anti-diabetic properties of green peas, more research is needed.
- May Improve Digestion
Prebiotic sugars and fiber may help with digestion. Galactose Oligosaccharides found in peas have been shown to aid in digestion in the large intestine ( 5).
Prebiotic sugars are used as food for probiotic bacteria in digestion. This allows the probiotic bacteria to convert sugars into beneficial products for our bodies.
Fiber aids in food movement through the digestive tract. This is vital for proper digestion and the elimination of toxic substances.
Pea sprouts have antimicrobial properties. The growth of Helicobacter Pylori, a bacteria that causes ulcers ( 6), was inhibited by the phenolic extracts from sprouted peas. Green peas can be beneficial for the overall function of the gastrointestinal tract.
- May Lower Blood Cholesterol Levels
Controlling cholesterol can prevent heart disease. A high level of low-density lipoprotein (or LDL) can be harmful for the body. It can clog the arteries and lead to heart disease. Peas were found to lower pigs’ plasma levels of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in studies ( 7). Green peas’ soluble fiber may lower your risk of developing heart disease.
- May Help Reduce Inflammation
Chronic inflammation and oxidative strain can cause neurological disorders, cardiovascular problems, and even cancer. To manage inflammation, it is important to include anti-inflammatory foods into our diets ( 8). Green peas’ powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory abilities may reduce the risk of developing cancer ( 9). These antioxidants reduce the harmful effects of free radicals by binding to them.
In animal studies, extracts from peas showed anti-inflammatory properties ( 10).
- May help reduce the risk of developing cancer
The legume family is well-known for its high levels of anti-cancer compounds. Certain inhibitors have been shown to lower the risk of colon carcinoma ( 11).
Other compounds found in green peas, such as saponins and lectins have also been shown to be anticancer ( 12). Studies have shown that green peas contain phenolic and isoflavone compounds, which have anticancer properties on the liver, colon, lung and breast cancer cells ( 1).
- Excellent Source For Antioxidants
The antioxidant power of green peas is evident in the form of phenolic compounds. They are rich in tannins, which have been shown to have high antioxidant activity ( 5). These compounds are beneficial and protect cells against damage and premature cell death. Antioxidants are able to reduce chronic health complications and prevent the formation of free radicals ( 13 ).
Green peas are a good choice because of their health benefits. Peas are easy to incorporate into your meals and easily available for purchase. Or you can grow them yourself. Peas might not be for everyone and may have side effects.